Originally written by Duane Garrett, edited and compiled by Teman Knight
PowerPoint Presentation to download here.
Studies in Exodus: Winter Bible Study 2009
Background Information for Exodus
English title from LXX – εξoδoς (εκ oδoς) – meaning “way out,” “going out,” or “departure probably based on 19:1
Hebrew title – “And these are the names”
Date of the Exodus
15th Century (1440 BC) (Garrett uses the early date)
- 1 Kings 6:1 – 480 years before Solomon’s temple 960 BC therefore = 1440
- No archeological evidence for Jericho’s destruction in 13th century
Pharaoh of the Exodus – Thutmosis III (1490-1435)
13th Century (1290 BC)
- Edom, Moab, and Ammon not in the area until a. 1300 BC
- Lachish, Debir, Hazor, and Bethel show evidence of a 13th century destruction
- Pithom & Rameses built by Rameses II (1290-1224). Egyptian texts say he built these cities using Semite slaves called ‘Apiru.
- 430 years back would put Joseph during the time of the Hyksos (1730-1570 bc)
Pharaoh of the Exodus – Rameses II
The traditional view is that Moses was the author.
Exodus 1-18 – Deliverance of God’s people – Relief
Exodus 19-24 – Covenant with God and His people – Relationship
Exodus 25-40 – Symbol of God’s presence with His people – Religion
- God is Always Faithful (Exodus 1:1-7:13)
- Seek God’s Help (Exodus 1:1-2:25)
- Accept God’s Challenge (Exodus 3:1-7:13)
- God is Absolutely Powerful (Exodus 7:14-15:21)
- Trust God Daily (Exodus 7:14-11:10
- Recognize God Alone (Exodus 12:1-15:21)
- God is Continuously Good (Exodus 15:22-23:22)
- Rely on God (Exodus 15:22-18:27
- Obey God (Exodus 15:19-23)
- God is Eternally Present (Exodus 15:24-40)
- Worship God (Exodus 15:24-31
- Serve God (Exodus 15:32-40)
God is Always Faithful (Exodus 1:1-7:13)
In a time of unfaithful leaders remember that God has always been faithful.
Seek God’s Help (Exodus 1:1-2:25)
Exodus Ch. 1 The Situation
Exodus 1: 7 – The 70 Israelites that had entered Egypt have now grown into a vast multitude.
Exodus 1:8 – There arose a new king who did not know Joseph.
Exodus 1:9-22 – Egyptian Oppression and Genocide
Kill the male children, women would grow up to be slaves or concubines
Exodus Ch. 2 A Faithful God has a Plan
Exodus 2:1-10 – Birth of Moses
Exodus2:23-25 – God heard their cry, he remembered his covenant and he intervened.
Accept God’s Challenge (Exodus 3:1-7:13)
- Turn Aside (Exodus 3:1-3). How often in our busy lives does God try to get our attention and we don’t even notice?
- Listen Carefully (Exodus 3:4-5). We not only need to listen when God speaks but we need to pay close attention to what He says.
- Purify Yourself (Exodus 3:6-7). Moses is instructed to take off his shoes because he is on Holy Ground. Removing his shoes shows respect for God’s purity. (These 3 sub points are derived from a sermon preached by Jack Hayford at a Promise Keepers meeting in Atlanta in 1996).
- Step out of the stains of your past. Our shoes represent where we have traveled and what we have done.
- Taking off the works of our hands. During this time most men made their own sandals. When we encounter God we are reminded that even our best efforts do not deserve to be in His presence.
- Walk Carefully. Anyone who has ever walked through a house barefoot in the dark has learned that you must be careful of where you step.
- Watch what God Does (Exodus 3:8). We must remember that God does not just send us off to fulfill our assigned task but that He is the one who actually does the work. “So I have come down to deliver them.” God works in, with and through us to accomplish His purpose. He doesn’t send us out alone to do the work. He reminds Moses, “I will certainly be with you” (12). When we turn aside and listen to God’s call, purifying ourselves then He will work through us to do more than we could ever imagine.
A major company reviewed the reasons its employees had given for being late and awarded a prize. The winning excuse was, “My pig fell in the furnace and I had to take it apart to get him out.” The employee elaborated that his pig had become ill so he brought it indoors to recuperate. The pig fell through an uncovered furnace duct.
When God calls us to service instead of obeying we often just offer all kinds of excuses.
Let us study Moses excuses and God’s response.
1. I am not worthy (Exodus 3:11-12).
- Moses’ excuse, “Who am I?” Who am I to do this great thing you have asked me to do? I am not qualified.
- God’s response, “I’ll be with you” You’re not qualified but I am.
2. I do not know enough about God (Exodus 3:13-14).
- Moses’ excuse “What is your name?” I still have so much to learn. How can I lead I don’t know enough?
- God’s response, “I am who I am” You already know who I am. I am the same God you already know and that is enough.
3. They will not believe me (Exodus 4:1-9).
- Moses’ excuse, “They will not believe me.” They won’t listen to me.
- God’s response was to give three signs of His presence: the sign of the rod, the leprous hand, and the water to blood. God equipped Moses and made His presence with Moses obvious for all to see.
Illustrate this point with Ken Medema’s “Moses”.
4. I am not eloquent (Exodus 4:10-12).
- Moses’ excuse “I can’t speak.” I can’t do this.
- God’s response, “Who made you.” I know what you can and can’t do. I would not ask you to do something and then not give you the ability to do it.
5. Send someone else (Exodus 4:13-17).
- Moses’ excuse, “Couldn’t someone else do this.”
- God becomes tired of the excuses and becomes angry with Moses, but He sends Aaron as a spokesman.
God is Absolutely Powerful (Exodus 7:14-15:21)
Trust God Daily (Exodus 7:14-11:10)
Pharaoh’s Hard Heart
Pharaoh heart was hard. (Exodus 7:13, Exodus 7:14, Exodus 7:22, Exodus 8:19, Exodus 9:7) God used the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart to reveal Himself both to the Hebrews and the Egyptians.
Pharaoh is said to have hardened his own heart. Each person is accountable to God for the choice he or she makes with regard to God’s will. (Exodus 8:15; Exodus 8:32; Exodus 9:34, Exodus 9:35)
God is said to have hardened his heart to accomplish His purpose. God is a sovereign God who can use resistance against His will to accomplish His purpose. (Exodus Exodus 7:3; Exodus 9:12; Exodus 10:1; Exodus 10:20; Exodus 10:27; Exodus 11:10)
- River plagues – blood, frogs
- Insect plagues – gnats, flies
- Disease plagues – anthrax, boils
- Crop plagues – Hail and fire, locusts
- Mystery plagues – darkness, death of 1st-born
4 reasons why the plagues were miracles
- Selectivity – missed Goshen
- Morality – demonstrate that true power belongs to God not to Pharoah
- Intensity – such as has never been before Exodus 9:24
- Timing – at God’s will and Moses command
Recurring themes in plagues
- “That Pharaoh may know that I am God”
- Distinction between Egyptians and Israel
- God’s superiority over gods of Egypt
Recognize God Alone (Exodus 12:1-15:21)
Passover – Ex. Exodus 12
- Blood is a symbol of deliverance
- Acted out faith – The application of the blood indicated their faith in what God said.
- It is not a coincidence that Jesus slain at Passover because Jesus was our Passover lamb. When the blood of Jesus is applied to our heart, then God’s judgment passes over us.
God is Continuously Good (Exodus 15:22-23:22)
Rely on God (Exodus 15:22-18:27)
The Leader Can’t Do It All By Himself
Exodus Exodus 18:17-23
I. The preacher and the staff can’t do it all by themselves. (Exodus 17-18)
The disciples couldn’t.
We need your help and we are all ministers.
What results when a leader tries to do it alone?
1. He is overworked and simply cannot do all that needs to be done.
2. The people are deprived of the immediate attention that they need.
3. The other talented leaders are not given an opportunity to use their talents.
II. What type of people are needed to help? (Exodus 21)
1. Capable people.
2. Committed people. We need people who are committed to both God and His church.
Christianity must mean everything to us before it can mean anything to others
3. Trustworthy people. We need people who are worthy of trust. Men of character
4. People who are not looking for their own gain and are not power hungry politicians but servant leaders.
III. The results of shared ministry.
To ease the burden of a minister so he can endure. (Exodus 22-23)
So that he can concentrate on what is most important. (Exodus 20)
Just like when the deacons were chosen so that the apostles could concentrate on preaching and teaching. (Acts 6:4)
Help keep the people satisfied. (Exodus 23)
Obey God (Exodus 19-23)
Exodus Exodus 19:1-6
The Hebrew word for covenant is berith. The basic meaning of the word is to “bond” or “fetter”. A covenant is a contract or treaty binding two parties together. Thus a covenant is a commitment or a relationship. A marriage relationship would be an example of a covenant. Our covenant relationship is described in the statement, “I will be their God and they will be my people.”
The Hebrew word for establishing a covenant is Karath, “to cut”. An example is seen in Genesis 15:8. When one “cuts” a covenant with another, he declares if I break this covenant may I be cut into like these animals.
- The Covenant is based on what God has done. (Exodus 19:4)
- The Covenant is based on two requirements (Exodus 19:5)
- Obey His voice.
- Keep His Covenant.
- The Covenant produces three results. (Exodus 19:6)
- Treasured possession.
- Kingdom of Priest.
- A Holy Nation.
Exodus 20 – The Ten Words
Exodus 20:1-4 Deal with our relationship with God.
Exodus 20:5-6 Deal with our relationships with each other.
- No other gods (Exodus 20:3). God has exclusive claim to our allegiance.
- No idols (Exodus 20:4–6). God demands that we not make any material image or put any material image in His place.
- Do not take name in vain (Exodus 20:7). To take His “name in vain” means to consider the name empty or meaningless: to deny or doubt His presence and power.
- Keep Sabbath holy (Exodus 20:8–11). Keep it Holy by resting from work and focusing on our relationship with God. We need to show the world that we are on God’s side by gathering to worship Him on the Lord’s Day and celebrating our freedom from death and sin by Christ’s death on the cross.
- Honor father and mother (Exodus 20:12). Respect of our parents leads to knowing God and living long in the land.
- Do not murder (Exodus 20:13). God intends that we do not take the life of another and that we remove hatred from our lives.
- Do not commit adultery (Exodus 20:14). God intends that we are wholly faithful to our marriage partner.
- Do not steal (Exodus 20:15). Respect for persons extends to their property. We do not “use” people for gain.
- Do not give false testimony (Exodus 20:16). An individual’s reputation is to be guarded with his life and property.
- Do not covet (Exodus 20:17). God intends that we not have an inordinate desire for the things of others.
Exodus 20:22-23:33 – The Book of the Covenant
Apodictic Law – non-conditional laws expressing absolute truth.
Casuistic laws – conditional laws characterized by “if-then” construction.
1. Religious and civil laws come from the Lord.
2. Human life has supreme value.
3. Gross retaliation is prohibited.
4. Class distinction is prohibited
5. Weaker members of society should be protected.
God is Eternally Present (Exodus 24-40)
Worship God (Exodus 24-31)
- The Tabernacle is the dwelling place of God among His people. The Hebrew root word for “tabernacle” means “to dwell”. The Tabernacle served as a symbol of God’s presence. (Exodus 25:8)
- The Tabernacle was built at the Lord’s instruction from the offerings of the people.
- The Tabernacle was a place of revelation where God spoke with Moses.
- The Tabernacle described graduated steps into presence of God
Contained in the Tabernacle
Ark of the Covenant – Exodus 25:10
Contained tables of stone, Aaron’s rod, golden pot of manna (later)
“Mercy Seat” – sins covered in mercy
Table of Presence Bread – Exodus 25:30 – God’s sustaining presence – Jesus said, “I am the bread of life.”
Lamp stand – Exodus 25:31 – 3 purposes
Functional – give light
Aesthetic – give beauty
Symbolic – convey concept of life and “Way to God always lit” – never to go out
Bronze Altar – Exodus 27:1 – burnt offering
Altar of Incense – Exodus 30:1 – Symbol of prayer
Laver – Exodus 30:17 – for cleansing – daily need washing
Serve God (Exodus 32-40)
Completion of Tabernacle
Exodus 32:11 – Intercession of Moses
Exodus 36:3-7 – Too much offering
Exodus 40:33-38 – cloud of God – presence and guidance of God